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ANAL FISSURE

INTAKE WILL REFLECT YOU OUT………………….. ANAL FISSURE is a break or tear in the skin of the anal canal ANAL FISSURE may be noticed by bright red anal bleeding on toilet paper and Under garments or sometimes in toile. If acute they are painful after defecation If its chroni...

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DYSPHAGIA

EVERY DIFFICULTY MUST BE REMOVED FOR EASY MOVING DYSPHAGIA si defined as difficulty in swallowing .It may coexist with heart burn or vominting but should be distinguished from both globus sensation(in which anxious people feel a lump in the throat without organic cause)and odynophagia (pain wh...

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ENDOMETRIOSIS

ENDOMETRIOSIS is a painful disorder ,in which abnormal growth of the endometrium outside Of uterine lining .commonly involves ovaries,fallopian tubes and tissue lining of pelvis. The area of endometriosis bleed each month ,resulting in inflammation and scaring . SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS -Pain an...

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FISTULA

A FISTULA is an abnormal connection between 2 hallow spaces (2 epithelial surfaces) Such as blood vessels,intestines,or other hallow organs. -FISTULAS are usually caused by injury or surgery,but they can also results from an Infection or inflammation. ANAL FISTULA is a chronic abnormal commu...

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HAIRFALL

Alopecia means nothing more than loss of hair and is a sign rather than diagnosis. There are many causes and patterns. CLASSIFICATION : LOCALISED (non scaring) :tinea capitis,alopecia areata,androgenetic alopecia, Traumatic and syphilis. DIFFUSED (non scaring) :Hypothyroidism,hyperthyroid...

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LIGAMENT TEAR

A ligament is a tough fibrous band of connective tissue that connects one bone to other bones . Ligamental tear is also called as a SPRAIN. VARIOUS LOCATIONS OF LIGAMENTAL TEAR Arm,Shoulder,wrist,knee,heel,fingers,cuboid,neck, Calf,thigh,breast,abdomen,popliteal,goin and trapezoid etc Sprain co...

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MALE FERTILITY

MALE FERTILITY is inability of male to cause pregnancy in fertile female. -Male is directly responsible in about 30-40% -Female is about 40-55% -Both r responsible in about 10% of cases -It is also emphasized that the relative subfertility of one partner may sometimes be counter Balanced by th...

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MASTITIS

Incidence of mastitis is 2-5% in lactating and less than 1% in non-lactating women.The common organisms involved are staphylococcus aureus,s.epidermidis and streptococci viridians. MASTITIS is inflammation of the breast usually associated with breast feeding There are 2 differeny types of mastitis...

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MENIERE’S DISEASE

MENIERE’S DISEASE MEINERE’S DISEASE is characterized by a triad of symptoms consisting of VERTIGO,DEAFNESS AND TINNITUS which occurs at irregular and unpredictable intervals MEINERE was a French physician who described in 1861.There is ENDOLYMPHATIC HYDROPS characterized by increased tension...

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MIGRAINE

MIGRAINE as a traid of paroxysmal headache,nausea or vomiting and an aura of focal neurological events (usually visual) MIGRAINE WITH AURA –CLASSICAL MIGRAINE MIGRAINE WITH OUT AURA –COMMON MIGRAINE CLASSICAL MIGRAINE starts with malaise and irritability followed by AURA of focal neurologica...

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MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES

MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES This is a group of inherited disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of groups of muscles,sometimes with involvement of the heart muscle or conducting tissue and other parts of the nervous system. MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY Autosomal dominant; expanded triplet repeat ...

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NASAL OBSTRUCTION

NASAL OBSTRUCTION can be temporary or permanent ;intermittent or persistent;unilateral or bilateral PHYSIOLOGICAL CYCLIC:one nostril functions more than the other in cyclic phase in normal persons POSTURAL :While lying down on one side ,the nostril on the lower side gradually gets blocked ,while ...

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OLIGOMENORRHOEA

OLIGOMENORRHOEA: Menstrual bleeding occurring more than 35 days a part and which remains constant at the frequent is called OLIGOMENORRHOEA. CAUSES -Age-related-During adolescence and preceding menopause -Weight-related-obesity. -Stress and exercise related -Endocrine disorders-PCOS,HYPERPROL...

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PCOS

PCOS POLY CYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens(male hormones)in female SIGNS AND SYMPOTOMS -PCOS includes irregular or no menstrual periods or heavy periods ,excess body and facial hair ,acne,pelvic pain,difficulty getting pregnancy and patches of thick darker ...

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PID(PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE)

PID(PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE) PID is PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE ,It is spectrum of infection and inflammation of the upper genital tract organs typically involving the uterus (endometrium),fallopian tubes,ovaries ,pelvic peritoneum and surrounding structures. Disease caused by bacteria that ...

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PILES OR HEMORRHOIDS

PILES OR HEMORRHOIDS Vascular structure in the anal canal ,they become disease when swollen or inflamed Signs and symptoms of haemorrhoids depends on type INTERNAL HEMORREHOIDS :Painless , bright red rectal bleeding when defecating EXTERNAL HEMORRHOIDS:Painful and swelling in the aera of anus C...

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POST PREGANANCY COMPLICATIONS

POST PREGANANCY COMPLICATIONS 1.POST PARTUM HAEMORRHAGE The amount of bleeding from the genital tract following birth of the baby up to the end of puerperium which adversely affects the general condition of the patient rise in pulse rate with fall of blood pressure. The average blood loss is 500...

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PSORIASIS

PSORIASIS PSORIASIS is a non infectious chronic inflammatory disease of the skin ,characterized by well defined Erythematous plaques with silvery scales . PSORIASIS may start at any age but is unusual before the age of 5 and the oldest recorded onset was In a patient aged 107. FACTORS CAUSING F...

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RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS Chronic symmetrical polyarthritis .It is a systemic disorder characterised by chronic inflammatory synovitis of mainly peripheral joints. It is a significant causes of disability and mortality and carrier a high socio economic cost Women before the menopause are affected 3 t...

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SCIATICA

SCIATICA SCIATICA is a medical condition in which pain going down the leg from the low back , Along the sciatic nerve pathway associated with weakness and numbness of the affected leg. CAUSES -SPINAL DISC HERNIATION pressing on one of the lumbar or sacral nerve roots is the most frequent Cause ...

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SINUSITIS

SINUSITIS Sinusitis is an infection of the paranasal sinuses that may be bacterial ,mainly streptococcus pneumonia And haemophilus influenza or occasionally fungal. Most commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection and can occur with severe asthma SYMPTOMS Include frontal headac...

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TINNITUS

TINNITUS TINNITUS is a noise in the ear or head .TINNITUS may occur with a benign disease , or it may be a warning signal of a serious disorder which needs to be diagnosed by through investigations TINNITUS is one of the most difficult symptoms to treat,it may be persists even after the aliments ...

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TONSILITIS

TONSILITIS TONSILITIS is one of the most common infection encounterd in everyday ACUTE TONSILITIS occurs frequently up to age of 15 years ,both sex are equally affected . ENDOGENOUS FACTORS: pre –existing upper respiratory tract infection , post nasal discharge due to tonsillitis general low...

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URINARY INCONTINENCE

URINARY INCONTINENCE URINARY INCONTINENCE is defined as any leakage of urine.it may occur with normal urinary tract e.g.in association with poor cognitiojn or poor mobility or transiently during an acute illness or hospitalization Especially in older people.Diuretics (medication ,alcohol or caffe...

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URTICARIA

URTICARIA URTICARIA also known as HIVES.It is a skin rash with red ,rised,itchy bumps.they may also burn or sting Rash lasts for few days but do not leave a scar ,the condition frequently recurs and lasts more than 6 weeks. URTICARIA frequently occur following an infection or as result of an all...

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UTERINE FIBROID

UTERINE FIBROID FIBROIDS OF UTERUS ALSO KNOWN AS UTERINE LEIOMYOMAS OR FIBROIDS are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. -Mostly fibroids are asymptomatic ,while some women experience painful and heavy bleeding. -If fibroids are large enough ,they may pressure on bladder causing frequent u...

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VITILIGO

VITILIGO VITILIGO is an acquired condition in which circumscribed depigmented patches develop ,it affects 1% of World population Unlike albinism where melanocytes are present but the production of melanin is abnormal. VITILIGO involves focal area of melanocyte loss,there may be positive family h...

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